2015年10月17日土曜日

今年の論題、基本中の基本おさらい(1)

これからディベート県大会の準備をする、
という先生方、生徒さん方に送る「まとめ」です。
1)PKOとは?世界の流れ
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/peace_b/genba/pko.html

2)PKOとは?日本の動き
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/peace_b/genba/gaiyo_jp.html
ここだけは押さえよう!→これを変えます!
「平和維持隊への参加に当たっての基本方針(いわゆる5原則)」
憲法第9条との関係で一切問題を生ずることがないようにする目的で整理をした基本方針。
(1)紛争当事国の間で停戦の合意が成立していること
(2)当該平和維持隊が活動する地域に属する国を含む紛争当事者が当該平和維持隊の活動及び当該平和維持隊への我が国の参加に同意していること
(3)当該平和維持隊が特定の紛争当事者に偏ることなく,中立的な立場を厳守すること
(4)上記の原則のいずれかが満たされない状況が生じた場合には,我が国から参加した部隊は撤収することができること
(5)武器の使用は,要員の生命等の防護のために必要な最小限のものに限られること
英語版

3.The Five Principles of Participation in Peacekeeping Troops

 The following principles have been arranged to ensure that participation in Peacekeeping Operations is in accordance with Article 9 of the Constitution.
  • (1) Agreement on a cease-fire shall have been reached among the parties to armed conflicts.
  • (2) Consent for the undertaking of UN Peacekeeping Operations as well as Japan’s participation in such operations shall have been obtained from the host countries as well as the parties to armed conflicts.
  • (3) The operations shall strictly maintain impartiality, not favoring any of the parties to armed conflicts.
  • (4) Should any of the requirements in the above-mentioned principles cease to be satisfied, the Government of Japan may withdraw Self-Defense Force (SDF) contingent.
  • (5) The use of weapons shall be limited to the minimum necessary to protect the lives of personnel, etc.
  で、実際にする業務は

.国際平和協力業務

 我が国は,国際連合平和維持活動のために実施される業務で次に掲げるもの,人道的な国際救援活動のために実施される業務で次の(10)から(17)までに掲げるもの及び国際的な選挙監視活動のために実施される業務で次の(7)及び(17)に掲げるものを「国際平和協力業務」として行う(第3条第3号)。
  • (1)武力紛争の停止の遵守状況の監視又は紛争当事者間で合意された軍隊の再配置,武装解除等の履行の監視
  • (2)緩衝地帯等における駐留及び巡回
  • (3)車両等又は通行人による武器の搬入又は搬出の有無の検査等
  • (4)放棄された武器の収集等
  • (5)紛争当事者が行う停戦線等の設定の援助
  • (6)紛争当事者間の捕虜の交換の援助
  • (7)選挙,住民投票等の公正な執行の監視又はこれらの管理
  • (8)警察行政事務に関する助言等又は警察行政事務の監視
  • (9)(8)に掲げるもののほか,行政事項に関する助言等
  • (10)医療(防疫上の措置を含む。)
  • (11)被災民の救出等又は帰還の援助
  • (12)被災民に対する食糧,衣料,医薬品等の配布
  • (13)被災民を収容するための施設等の設置
  • (14)紛争によって被害を受けた施設等であって被災民の生活上必要なものの復旧又は整備のための措置
  • (15)紛争によって汚染その他の被害を受けた自然環境の復旧のための措置
  • (16)(1)から(15)までに掲げるもののほか輸送,保管,通信,建設又は機械器具の据付け等
  • (17)(1)から(16)までに掲げる業務に類するものとして政令で定める業務
  • 英語版
  • 4.International Peace Cooperation Assignments

     The "International Peace Cooperation Assignments" that Japan conducts refer to the following tasks implemented for United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, tasks provided below in (10) to (17) for International Humanitarian Relief Operations, and in (7) and (17) for International Election Observation Operations (Article 3, item 3).
    • (1) Monitoring the observance of cessation of armed conflicts or the implementation of relocation, withdrawal or demobilization of armed forces agreed upon among the Parties to armed conflicts;
    • (2) Stationing in and patrol of buffer zones and other areas demarcated to prevent the occurrence of armed conflicts;
    • (3) Inspection or identification of weapons and their parts carried in or out by vehicle or other means of transportation or on foot;
    • (4) Collection, storage or disposal of abandoned weapons and their parts;
    • (5) Assistance with the designation of cease-fire lines or other similar boundaries by the Parties to armed conflicts;
    • (6) Assistance with the exchange of prisoners-of-war among the Parties to armed conflicts;
    • (7) Observation or management of the fair execution of elections for a representative assembly, referendums or any other similar elections or voting;
    • (8) Provision of advice or guidance and supervision related to police administrative matters;
    • (9) Provision of advice or guidance related to administrative matters in addition to (8) above;
    • (10) Medical care including sanitation measures;
    • (11) Search or rescue of afflicted persons or assistance in their repatriation;
    • (12) Distribution of food, clothing, medical supplies and other daily necessities to afflicted persons;
    • (13) Installation of facilities or equipment to accommodate afflicted persons;
    • (14) Measures for the repair or maintenance of facilities or equipment damaged by conflicts, which are necessary for the daily life of afflicted persons;
    • (15) Measures for the restoration of the natural environment subjected to pollution and other damage due to conflicts;
    • (16) Transportation, storage or reservation, communication, construction, installation, inspection or repair of machines and other apparatuses in addition to what is listed in (1) to (15) above.
    • (17) Other tasks similar to those listed in (1) to (16) above as specified by Cabinet Order.